Why rip your CDs? And why rip them to lossless?

Why rip your CDs? And why rip them to lossless?

Ripping music – transferring it from a physical format into a purely digital form stored on a computer drive – was once regarded with suspicion by those who prize sound quality. Surely changing music, even music already stored in digital form on a compact disc, from one format to another would result in a loss of quality that would outweigh any gain in convenience?

But it’s an opinion that just doesn’t hold water anymore. Formats like MP3 and AAC may sacrifice some quality in order to keep file sizes small, but the emergence of lossless digital audio formats, able to preserve every piece of information from a CD recording, means that the ripped file can be sonically indistinguishable from the original.

You might still ask why you should spend precious time ripping your CD collection. It’s all a question of convenience: a lossless digital music collection saves shelf space and is easy to move and back up; for larger collections, it also makes it far easier and faster to locate individual songs and albums. You can also access a digital music library from multiple sources simultaneously, for example from several network music players located in different rooms in your house.

On the hardware side, storage devices like NAS and external hard drives offer huge amounts of space at low prices. And with high quality DACs widely available, computer hardware now offers excellent playback and can be easily connected to your existing hi-fi setup.

File types: which should I use?

So you’ve decided to rip your CD collection to a lossless format, but which format should you choose? Here are the main contenders.

FLAC

The Free Lossless Audio Codec is fast becoming the most popular choice for audiophiles. Like MP3, OGG and AAC, FLAC is compressed to keep file sizes relatively small, but unlike those formats it’s lossless and therefore indistinguishable from CD quality. CD audio converted to FLAC will typically be reduced to around 50 percent of its original size; a typical three-minute song on a CD will take up 30-40MB of space, while a ripped FLAC version of that song is 15-20MB.

FLAC supports metadata (artist and song information can be embedded into the file and artwork can be referenced by the file) and will play back on a wide variety of software and hardware, some of which we’ll explore later in this article. Crucially for many, it’s not currently supported by Apple products like iTunes or the iPod.

Apple Lossless

As you might guess from the name, the Apple Lossless Audio Codec (or ALAC) was developed by Apple and works with the company’s products like iTunes, the iPod and the iPhone (as well as being supported by a number of other hardware and software players); if you’re an avid user of Apple gear, this will probably be the format for you. Like FLAC it’s compressed and supports metadata, and files ripped from typically take up around 40-60 percent of their original size.

AIFF and WAV

AIFF and WAV are lossless but uncompressed, so ripped files take up the same amount of space as they would on a CD (around 10MB per minute of stereo sound). This large file size makes them less desirable than FLAC and Apple Lossless, as you’ll need about twice the storage space for the same library, but they are compatible with a wide range of devices and software. WAV handles metadata but in a clumsier way than FLAC and ALAC, so if you transfer a WAV library to another device there is a chance some of the information may not appear as it should.

Ripping software

Max (Mac)

Available for Apple computers running Mac OS X 10.4 and higher, Max is a free app able to create audio files in a variety of formats, including all four lossless codecs mentioned above. If your CDs are slightly scratched, Max incorporates “Cdparanoia”, which corrects any errors that might occur during the ripping process. It also features MusicBrainz, which looks for CD information online and then embeds this metadata in the ripped files (this works for FLAC and Apple Lossless, but not WAV and AIFF).

Max’s interface isn’t the slickest or most user-friendly thing we’ve ever seen, and if you’re not au fait with ripping software you might need to consult its built-in help documents. That said, once you’ve got to grips with it, it’s a fast and accurate ripper, and should you wish to rip your CDs to more than one format (perhaps you want one lossless copy for home listening and one lossy but smaller MP3 copy for your portable player), you can do so simultaneously.

Exact Audio Copy (PC)

If you’re using Windows and want to convert your CDs to FLAC, Exact Audio Copy does the job very ably indeed, and its accuracy and error correction make it extremely popular with PC-owning rippers. It uses the freedb CD database for metadata retrieval. Oh, and like Max it’s 100 percent free.

iTunes (PC and Mac)

Chances are, you already have iTunes on your PC or Mac – and that could save you downloading and installing another ripping app. iTunes can rip CDs to three lossless formats (Apple Lossless, AIFF and WAV) and features error correction for damaged discs. iTunes automatically retrieves album and artist information from the Internet.

Playing your files

Of course, iTunes also functions as a software player for several lossless formats, as well as a way to get the files onto your iPod or iOS device for portable listening. As mentioned above, iTunes will not play FLAC files, so if that’s your audio format of choice, you’ll need to find something else.

Windows users have a wide choice of FLAC-compatible players, including the highly popular likes of Winamp and MediaMonkey; you can also add a plugin to Windows Media Player in order to make it play FLAC. There’s also VLC, Songbird and XBMC Media Center, all of which work on both PC and Mac.

In terms of portable hardware, Apple Lossless, WAV and AIFF will all play on iPods and iPhones, as well as a handful of other physical players. FLAC won’t play on Apple devices, but it works on many Samsung Galaxy smartphones, a number of AV receivers and almost every portable audio player made by iAudio.

67 Comments

  • Jon Paterson says:

    I rip all my music to both Flac and MP3. MP3 for phones iPods etc. Flac for HiFi quality, I use a Sonus system to feed my Cyrus amp and QM9 speakers, and various other Sonus products round the house that can be separate or synced up. These also can feed internet radio or various streaming services. All controlled by phone apps.
    I’m very happy with the setup and find the sound quality of Flac through the Cyrus/QM9 seup to be excellent.

  • Gary says:

    Bull do a white noise test and compare them

  • Craig Allison says:

    I am a former, 20 year B&W dealer. High resolution audio via high-rate PCM or DSD is a great new path to music enjoyment. But the process must be made much simpler or the public as a whole will not change their preferences. Someone needs to come out with a “Musicomputer” that can only download music files from any site and organize them for the user, with a slot for DAC of choice. As a high-end sage said recently, “The only problem with computer audio is the computer.” As it stands, one needs J-river but such as HD Trax must be imported into it., and a fair amount of cyber-manipulation and perseverance is needed. As long as this state of affairs continues, I-Tunes/MP-3 will continue to badly pollute the musical waters at a time that is critical to re-engage the masses with good sounding music. And what does B&W think of Pono?

  • Srinath says:

    Thanks for recommending Exact Audio Copy.

  • Harry Sillen says:

    The prospect of transferring my CD collection to a storage device is daunting to me. I have an all-McIntosh system with B&W 803 Diamonds and need something that is comparable in sound quality. Maybe some of your readers know of some equipment that can import from it’s own CD drive and store the files internally, to be connected to my pre-amp? I love my CDs and am loath to give up all the info on the jackets, as I was giving up the LP sleeves some time ago, but space considerations dictate this. Added to that is the fact that more and more recordings are no longer available on physical discs, but as downloads only. I thank all the writers above for their valuable input. I’ll pour over the information in the hopes of learning something. Thanks!

  • Taras says:

    Harry, you may try XLD on your Mac for ripping the CDs and organizing them on your Mac and then transfer to a NAS device (Synology can be connected to external DACs and then to your amp).

    Otherwise consider something like Bluesound system that may rip and organize the discs itself.

    Or consider one of CD ripping services, so you just pack your music collection and send it to a company that does the rest for you.

    I’m currently using 2-disk Synology NAS for my music collection (ripping has been a time-consuming process, but I only had to do this once). The music is then streamed to Sonos/Rotel/B&W combination which works just fine.

  • Andreas says:

    How about high resolution discs. I don’t know that much about different discs.
    The only one Ive come in contact with are DVD-Audio, and after some searching there are software to rip those.
    There was some free software cant remember the name but it was a bit clumsy in handling the files.
    There is also DVD Audio Extractor wich is not free, but if you want to have those discs on your computer like the rest of your library its a good option to have.

    Since you guys are the experts, what about SACD or Blu-Ray Audio discs is there any way to add those to a digital library ? I find high quality music interessting, but if it can’t be integrated into the collection its a waste to purchase those discs.

  • Linky P says:

    I agree with Craig Allen’s comment above — it’s just got to get simpler. Other than iTunes, I don’t really know of a dependable library manager that has a decent interface. I’m looking for one now (the newer versions of iTunes have really messed up what use to be a pretty stable system). I’ve got 3,000+ CDs yet to rip, and about 40,000+ songs already digitized. None of that does me any good if I can’t get to them easily, find and play them easily. And, you know, this isn’t my full time job.

  • Linky P says:

    Sorry, Craig Allison, not Craig Allen.

  • Rene says:

    I have about 700 CDs I would like to put on an external harddrive, so that I can then move some of the music over to itunes. I have a mac that does not have a disc drive. Do I purchase an external disc drive and an external harddrive? Or should I just pay approximately $0.70-$0.99 per disc and have a service do it. You do have to buy the harddrive from them, you can’t send in one you already own. Thanks! Obviously I am a tech dummie : )

  • Leigh Copp says:

    I have to agree with the convenience of having your music library consolidated on a device such as a NAS server. I have most of my music now in FLAC24 stored on an 18 TB NAS with Gigabit Ethernet connection to a Bryston BDP-2 music player. I’m currently using the DAC in my Anthem D2V-3D Processor/Pre-amp, which in turn feeds a pair of Bryston 28BSST2 amplifiers driving 800 Diamonds. I can queue up a playlist from an Internet browser on my phone or tablet (although the Bryston web interface really prefers the larger screen). I also have an inexpensive app for my Samsung Android based phone which will play the FLAC24 format. I have pretty much abandoned the Apple hardware/software for most of my music largely out of frustration with iTunes, although I still purchase music from iTunes when I can’t find it elsewhere. Due to licensing restrictions a lot of HD content doesn’t seem to be available in Canada, (or I haven’t found the right place to get it). I can certainly appreciate the comments that “music library management” can become quite time consuming however. Certainly it is a case of short term pain, long term gain. The process can be a tad daunting for less technical users so a more automated method (hence the popularity of Apple) would be widely welcomed. On the subject of cabling as I saw a comment on Audioquest. Digital data is just that; Digital. As long as the device playing the music, be it a music player or DAC, buffers the incoming data it will re-assemble it as flawlessly as it was digitized to begin with. The discussions of Bit Error Rate, and Jitter are simply not relevant to the network connection between the music library and the player, because the audio file is being copied to the player and then re-assembled in memory, before the DAC process begins. I’ve heard some tails of “Audio grade” Ethernet cables and I can’t say that it sounds like a valid case.

  • Paul brookes says:

    Will someone please clarify is the only advantage of ripping a cd collection space. But would high res downloads be superior to cd. Any replays would be appreciated.

  • Jackman says:

    To get the best from your audio rips you need to use XXHighend software. It is not free, but streets ahead of anything else I’ve used. A demo is available with reduced functionality. It needs a ballsy PC with Win8 to run at its best & there is a forum of friendly folk to get you up & running if you need it

  • Harry Sillen says:

    Have had no opportunity to visit the site again and want to thank you for the suggestions. I getting some experience in this field by transferring some files to USB drive and playing them in the McIntosh MPV 891 Blu-Ray player which can play files up to 24/192. Sounds great, but obviously not a permanent solution.

  • SMind says:

    Mr PAW.

    Please, please please.
    FLAC is Lossless. It’s IMPOSSIBLE that you can distinguish between AIFF and FLAC because they are MATHEMATICALLY THE SAME at the final audio buffer stage. Anyway, if you can distinguish, your computer has a software problem.

    Best regards,
    SMind

  • Ian Nelson says:

    It seems to me that if you’re on a Mac and have plenty of storage, iTunes is ideal for ripping and managing CD’s. I rip to ALAC and output at the highest resolution via a USB-S/PDIF converter to my Rega DAC. Qobuz also works like a charm this way for full resolution streaming listening. No need to rip to MP3 or AAC as well because iTunes does an on-the-fly conversion to AAC if you tell it to for transfer to iPhone or iPod. Good luck all!

  • Jackman says:

    I guess I’m in the wrong place, folks here seems more interested in convenience & the ability to listen to music on a telephone than quality!

  • JW says:

    I only have about 1,500 CDs and plan on ripping each to AIFF. This is because although I think FLAC is excellent I believe AIFF preserves the complete file and meta data integrity. I will place it all on hard drives,for safe keeping but those drives will accessible via Wi-Fi or can be USB feed into my OPPO or playback device. The tracks I want to listen to the most on an ultra fast USB drive such as the Corsair Flash Voyager GTX USB 3.0 256GB which I can pop into the OPPO or a USB dongle in the automobile. I believe this approach allows me complete flexibility with my music.

  • milan says:

    New to this digital malarkey. I am still shocked that despite the fact that we all have audiophile pretensions, the information available on how to select, download , organise, categorise, then replay the audio files is so convoluted.
    I have looked at various downloaders, and to be blunt, I don’t understand what on earth they are talking about.
    I want ONE program that will do all of the above, and for audio files with attached data and cover art to be in that program when I want to look for the download. If I have to pay o.k., but what’s the program?
    I was an old school audio enthusiast. Belt drive turntable, arm, cartridge, dual mono preamps, monoblock power amps, I pair loudspeakers, dedicated hifi room. All before the arrival of children.
    Now, I have been to demos, and not one has been as stress free as put on an album, CAREFULLY lower the expensive cartridge, walk back, sit down, listen, End of side, repeat process.
    It has to be a one-stop-shop, Paid for is not an issue as long as it does the job.
    It has to be easy; as was mentioned earlier, it should not be a full time job
    Currently far too complex a system.
    My listening system now/
    Fiio X1 digital player (flac preferred download , wav for ripped CD)
    Micro SD storage card.
    Audiophile, reference, headphones
    Probably looking for a headphone amp for < £100
    Not spending any more till the software issues are sorted.

  • Mr.M says:

    It’s important to get that balance between ease of use and actual enjoyment of the music, if you find yourself spending all of your free time, editing, converting, cataloguing, metadata editing and so forth, you run out of time to sit and listen!
    I’m primarily an OS X user so my bias is towards apps and solutions that are focused on that platform or at least available on OS X. I had used iTunes for years as a library, using it to import CD’s and then manage cover art and track metadata, I’ve never really liked iTunes, it’s an idiot proofed set of compromises both in terms of functionality and perhaps quality.
    I considered what may be the best app or combination of apps for each step of the process, ripping CD’s, a library, a player and eventually looking at better external DAC options. Here’s what I have and what I would consider a setup I can recommend from personal use.

    CD Ripping – XLD – http://tmkk.undo.jp/xld/index_e.html
    Library – iTunes can still be used, it’s database at least ( see player comment next)
    Player – Audirvana – http://audirvana.com – iTunes or it’s own Database can be used
    DAC – I mainly use an iFi iDSD Nano – http://ifi-audio.com/portfolio-view/nano-idsd/

    This then typically connects up to a Naim amp and onto the speakers where the good stuff happens.

    This combination is good for a number of reason, XLD is very accurate and handles errors better than iTunes ripping engine, Audirvana gives you the flexibility to just use it as a front end to an existing iTunes Database, but takes control of the audio processing, bypassing the OS X CoreAudio data path and passing the audio data directly to the DAC over USB, this is referred to as Integer Mode, in this case, the source FLAC, AIFF, WAVE or whatever format file, is buffered in RAM, then passed to the DAC directly without any overhead or additional processing steps.
    In terms of DAC’s, i’ve tried and still own a number of different types, from very small USB “stick” ones to more exotic ones from Arcam and Naim.
    I use the iFi iDSD more than most as it is also compatible with my iPhone (also Android is supported and I’ve used that on occasion too), it has it’s own battery and can be connected directly to my phone when travelling and act as an outboard DAC for on the go listening, I combine that with the Onkyo HF Player app on my iPhone and this allows me to load and listen to any file format including FLAC on my iPhone when on the move, acting as both a DAC and headphone amp in one battery powered unit.
    I also use SONOS at home in most rooms, either their own speakers or zones into DAC’s or amps. I’d say that is the best of the bunch in terms of simplicity and ability to be expanded easily.

  • TonyF says:

    i have been using a Naim HDX now for over 6 years to manage the ripping and replay of digitised music. The HDX has onboard storage with an extension into an AVA RS3 NAS drive, elsewhere in my house (connected by high speed Ethernet over the mains).
    I also have a large capacity Iomega USB hard drive, that’s located right next to the HDX – that’s where downloaded hi-res content (sourced from Linn, Qobuz, HD Tracks, B&W SoS, HDDT, etc, or ripped by me from DVD-A discs) is stored (after being copied from the laptop on which the original download is made), and this content is 100% integrated into the library / database on the HDX.
    Ripping using the HDX is simplicity itself. The downloads and DVD-A ripping are slightly more fiddly, but really not too hard.
    Finally I use MP3Tag software for management of the metadata on all material on the USB drive; metadata for the other content ripped by the Naim HDX can be managed using Naim’s N-Serve app ….
    Hope this helps. I have no relationship with Naim other than as a satisfied customer (I also use a Naim DAC, fed by Sp/DIF cable from the HDX).

  • Thor48 says:

    I was using FLAC but switched to AIFF as I also think the sound is better. Tracks in AIFF seem to really come to life and have excellent depth – if the recording is well done. Get the track “Diamonds on the Soles of Her Shoes” in AIFF or get the MCA Master Series – Sampler ’86 and rip it to AIFF and get ready for amazing.

  • DustyYevski says:

    I have built up a library on an external drive using Exact Audio Copy. I have thus far been ripping to WAV because space is not an issue. I want to back this library up on a second drive in case the first drive goes bad — what is the best way to do that so that it is replicated faithfully?

  • Freddie August says:

    Using iTunes and iTunes Match. I’m a professional classical musician and listen to a lot of music in various different places. When relaxing at home, my first choice of format is vinyl played on a Rega RP3 turntable through my B&W 685, 686, HTM62 and ASW610 setup (but in stereo). I also buy a copy of the vinyl on CD or just on CD if the music is not available on vinyl. Using iTunes, I rip the music to Apple Lossless ALAC and store it on a NAS. When listening to various tracks/movements from different albums, I stream these ALAC files directly from the NAS to my amp or via a computer to an Apple TV connected to the amp. ALAC files give the high fidelity sound that we spend all that money on equipment to obtain, but the file size is to large to store the amount of music I carry around on an iPhone or iPod. Here I need a smaller file size. Some contributors here have mentioned ripping your music using 2 formats, but I believe there is a simpler, easier way.

    Apple has a service called iTunes Match which has a yearly subscription cost of around £20. When I rip a CD using iTunes on a computer, iTunes will automatically store a copy in iCloud. My full music library is then available on any Mac, PC or iOS device that has iTunes Match turned on and all the music can either be downloaded onto the device or streamed directly from iCloud. The winning feature is that iTunes Match automatically converts the music to lossy AAC format with its smaller file size which is perfect for use when out and about.

    Two file formats with one rip and all your music ready and available everywhere and all for around 20 quid! Hope this helps and happy listening.

  • Reality Check says:

    Man… reading thru the article, then all the comments, its all still a can of non standardized worms. A guy never had to lose his money so fast or work so hard just to get his music collection converted to “lossless”, then merely be able to play it thru his stand alone existing audio gear.

    – You should never stream anything
    – You should never have to use a PC except for converting CD’s etc to FLAC or AIFF
    – You should never have a PC connected to your stand alone audio gear
    – You should never us a mobile device for your stand alone audio setup playback
    – You should never or never have to have your stand alone audio setup connected to the internet. Even thru a VPN.
    – You should never use wi-fi or have to use wi-fi or over-the-air networking for anything related to your stand alone audio setup
    -You should never have to use a Blueray DVD deck just to have a playback source for 92/24 or 192/24 FLAC or AIFF hard wired to your stand alone setup

    There should be affordable, simple playback devices to merely “hard wire” to your decent audiophile grade stand alone setup for FLAC or AIFF playback. Mine is a great tube amp, pre-amp, and hand made speakers. BUT THERE IS NOT. Note the word affordable, and not something waaay over priced like from Cambridge Audio that still includes the unwanted Bluetooth. Thats why companies like HDTracks.com isnt doing so well for the stand alone audiophile home user. There really is nothing out there on the market now made solely to hard wire to your amp or pre amp. HDtracks.com main market now is for overpriced mobile devices like PONO, Fiio,a and the god awful iphone and thru itunes for 92/24 and 192/24 FLAC and AIFF.

    So it remains; the only reason to rip your collection into any lossless format for the decent audiophile home collection is STORAGE SPACE ONLY. Ridiculous. Just keep your CD/’s, albums, tapes, etc the way they are and the the space they take up. Because the lossless software and hardware industry worldwide does NOT want you to be easily able to playback anything that is completely stand lone, at home, and hard wired only.

  • J. Crew says:

    The whole process, point, and playability of ripping your collection to FLAC or AIFF is a complete moot point for the home audiophile, as there is still NO affordable common device to hard wire into your existing system. Since when does the home audiophile have to use a computer, wi-fi, mobile device, or a expensive server to merely play his collection at home?!?

    Plus, as it is commonly known, the home audiophile will not hear any real difference between a 96 or 196/24 FLAC music track and the old compressed lossy mp3 audio CD unless he has spent $150,000.00 usd to begin with.

    No wonder vinyl is making a huge comeback.

  • P Turner says:

    I have moved my 300+ CD collection to Apple Lossless on my Mac but I am concerned that the output is through a low quality earphone jack. Any thoughts on the appropriate way to retrieve and play lossless sound in the highest quality on the home system? DAC?

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